I. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.
(ii) What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.
(iii) What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?
(iv) What are the biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples.
(i) Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh are states having black soil. Cotton is mainly grown in black soil.
(ii) Alluvial Soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast. Three features of alluvial soil: → Alluvial soils are very fertile. → They are ideal for growing sugarcane, wheat and paddy. → The regions of alluvial soils are intensively cultivated and densely populated.
(iii) In hilly areas, soil erosion can be controlled by ploughing across contour-lines, making use of terrace farming techniques and using strips of grasses to check soil erosion by wind and water.
(iv) Biotic Resources: The resources which are obtained from the biosphere and have life are called Biotic Resources. For example, animals and plants including human beings. Abiotic Resources: The resources which are composed of non-living things are called Abiotic Resources. For example, water, minerals, metals, wind, solar energy etc.
II. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?
(ii) How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?
(i) Land resources in India are primarily divided into agricultural land, forest land, land meant for pasture and grazing, and waste land. Waste land includes rocky, arid and desert areas, and land used for other non-agricultural purposes such as housing, roads and industry. According to the recent data, about 54% of the total land area is cultivable or fallow, 22.5% is covered by forests, and 3.45% is used for grazing. The rest is waste land, with traces of miscellaneous cultivation. The land under forest has not increased since 1960–61 because in the post-independence era demand for more land to expand agriculture, mainly after Green Revolution, developmental works and infrastructural facilities, led to clearance of forests areas. Industrialisation and urbanisation also decreased the forest area. Thus, land under forest has increased by only about 4% since 1960-61.
(ii) Technical and economic development have led to more consumption of resources on account of various factors such as: → Technological development provides sophisticated equipments. As a result, production increases ultimately leading to consumption of more resources. → Technological development also leads to economic development. When the economic condition of a country rises, the needs of people also rise. It again results into more consumption of resources. → Economic development provides favourable environment for the development of latest technologies. It helps to make or convert various materials found around us into resources. Finally, it results into the consumption of new available resources too.